The principal frankincense/myrrh-producing areas in South Arabia and northern Somalia lay between two superpowers of the first century A.D. To the west, the Romans dominated. In the East, the Parthians ruled. Based on the Mathew 2 account in the New Testament, it can inferred that Dhofar was under the influence or rule of the Parthians. This is now confirmed by the detailed survey and excavation work in southern Arabia. Wadi Masilah appears to be the cultural boundary between the Roman and Parthian worlds in southern Arabia.